Serum C-peptide, insulin-binding IgG and total insulin (IRI) were determined in 96 juvenile diabetics aged 4-21 years, with onset of diabetes at the age of 1-16 years and with 2-17 years' duration of diabetes. Thirty-four patients (35.4%) had detectable levels of C-peptide (greater than or equal to 0.04 pmol/ml). Compared to non-diabetic adults, 19 had values below the normal range, 12 showed values within the normal range (0.18-0.63 pmol/ml) and 3 rated above normal. There was a negative correlation between the fasting C-peptide concentration and the degree of ketonuria at the onset of diabetes and a positive correlation between C-peptide levels and the incidence of post-initial remission periods. Patients without detectable C-peptide had significantly higher levels of insulin antibodies than those who had detectable levels of C-peptide. The possibility of a relationship between the intensity of the initial treatment of diabetes and the preservation of the B-cell function is discussed, as well as the possibility of insulin antibodies being a cause of B-cell exhaustion.