Primary cultures were established from vestibular schwannomas of NF2 patients. The cultured tumor cells were selectively amplified by growth factor supplemented medium and characterized by immunocytochemistry. NF2 cDNA was amplified by RT-PCR and mutations were detected by both the non-isotopic RNase cleavage assay and direct DNA sequencing, no detectable wild-type NF2 transcript was found in cDNA from the cultured cells. Distinguishable morphology and growth rate differences have been observed in different passages of the primary cells. The data suggest that a pure schwannoma primary culture can be established and could be very useful in vitro model for further understanding the NF2 gene function in Schwann cells.