The concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) were determined in plasma samples of 20 nonoccupationally exposed subjects living in the vicinity of a new hazardous waste incinerator (HWI), now under construction in Tarragona (Catalonia, Spain). The mean PCDD/F value was 27.0 pg I-TEQ/g lipid with a range from 14.8 to 48.9 pg I-TEQ/g lipid. All samples showed higher PCDD than PCDF levels. Although PCDD/F concentrations were higher in women (27.7 pg I-TEQ/g lipid) than in men (25.2 pg I-TEQ/g lipid), the difference was not statistically significant. While a significant correlation (r = 0.565, p < 0.01) between the age of the subjects and the levels of PCDD/F in plasma could be observed, no significant differences were found in relation to the specific residential area. The plasma concentrations of PCDD/F obtained in the current study are discussed and compared with the results of similar investigations reported in the last two years.