1. National survey on died patients with active tuberculosis (tbc) or tbc sequelae had been held in national hospitals every five year from 1959 (3433 cases) to 1994 (688 cases). In 1994, 330 patients died due to pulmonary tbc. Recent study revealed the decreased rate of death due to operation, or far advanced cavitary cases, and the increased rate of nontuberculous death, aged people (> 60 yrs), and nontuberculous complications. Main causes of death in pulmonary tbc were lung insufficiency (about half) and general weakness (almost one fifth) in any survey. Rapid progression of pulmonary tbc had been increased cause of death (20.9% in 1994). Main attributable factors of death in 1994 in pulmonary tbc cases were severe condition on admission (38.4%), disturbed lung function (31.2%) and old age (33.2%). Delayed treatment (13.9%) and complications (12.1%) were increasing factors. Early death within 3 months from onset in 1994 was seen in patients < 60 yrs as well as in patients > 80 yrs. Severity due to delayed treatment and rapid progression were supposed to the causes of early death. 2. During 1994 to 1997, mechanical ventilation (MV; > 24 hours) was applied to 18 patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis; 10 acute respiratory failure (ARF), 5 chronic respiratory failure (CRF), 2 central nervous system tbc and 1 hemoptysis. Only one ARF case and three CRF ones survived. ARF cases had low PaO2/FIO2 (about 100), low albuminemia, short MV period (7 cases: < 7 days) and steroid therapy (9 cases). CRF cases had higher PaO2/FIO2 (294), longer MV period (4 cases: > 30 days) and all CO2 narcosis. 3. Noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) was applied to 23 patients with pulmonary tbc sequelae. In 13 patients with stable chronic respiratory failure (mean PaO2 91 mmHg, PaCO2 82 mmHg) 10 continued NIPPV and started home mechanical ventilation (HMV). In 10 patients with acute on chronic respiratory failure (mean PaO2 61 mmHg, PaCO2 92 mmHg) 2 patients fell into tracheal intermittent positive pressure ventilation (TIPPV). Eight patients recovered with NIPPV and 5 started HMV. NIPPV is supposed to be very effective to treat severe chronic hypercapmic respiratory failure.