Nalpha-[3-(Hexadecanoyloxy)hexadecanoyl]-ornithine is a typical bacterial ornithine-containing lipid (OL). The configuration of the 3-hydroxy fatty acids in the OL was proved to be D by using HPLC with chiral column. For this analysis, Nalpha-(D or L)-[3-(hexadecanoyloxy)hexadecanoyl]-L-ornithine were synthesized and used as standards. The typical bacterial OL, as well as the synthesized one, exhibited strong interleukin-1- and prostaglandin E2-inducing activities, and further, it induced the production of high IgG anti-tetanus toxoid antibodies in mice. The typical OL is expected to be utilized as a nontoxic, potent adjuvant.