Temperature measurement using echo-shifted FLASH at low field for interventional MRI

J Magn Reson Imaging. 1999 Jan;9(1):138-45. doi: 10.1002/(sici)1522-2586(199901)9:1<138::aid-jmri18>3.0.co;2-a.


We investigated the feasibility of using echo-shifted fast low-angle shot (FLASH) for temperature-monitored thermo-therapeutic procedures in a 0.2 T interventional magnetic resonance (MR) scanner. Based on the proton resonance frequency shift technique, modified echo-shifted FLASH has sufficiently high signal-to-noise ratio to provide accurate temperature maps with short scan times, i.e., 5 seconds in phantoms (TR = 20.5 msec; effective TE = 30 msec; one echo shift; NSA = 2) and ex vivo experiments (TR = 19.4 msec; effective TE = 28.9 msec; one echo shift; NSA = 2) and 3 seconds (TR = 19.4 msec; effective TE = 28.9 msec, one echo shift; NSA 1) for an in vivo case. The proton resonance frequency shifts with temperature observed in a 0.2 T MR scanner using this sequence were -0.0072 ppm/degrees C (temperature uncertainty = +/-2.5 degrees C) for polyacrylamide phantoins and -0.0086 ppm/degrees C (temperature uncertainty = +/- 1 degrees C) for ex vivo bovine liver. These experiments demonstrated that echo-shifted FLASH is a viable method for low-field temperature monitoring despite the decreased signal and decreased phase sensitivity compared with its counterpart in a 1.5 T MR imaging system. The improved temporal resolution of temperature images, now possible in low-field interventional MR systems using echo-shifted FLASH, will allow clinicians more accurate monitoring of interstitial ablation in MR-guided interventional procedures.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Cattle
  • Dogs
  • Feasibility Studies
  • Humans
  • Laser Therapy
  • Liver / pathology*
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods*
  • Phantoms, Imaging
  • Temperature
  • Time Factors