Circadian modulation of QT rate dependence in healthy volunteers: gender and age differences

J Electrocardiol. 1999 Jan;32(1):33-43. doi: 10.1016/s0022-0736(99)90019-5.


QT rate dependence is known to be linked with both circadian variations of the autonomic tone and gender. However, age and heart rate variability (HRV) influences are not well established. The QT/RR relationship was evaluated, separately during the day and at night, on 24-hour electrocardiogram in 60 healthy subjects (30 men) divided into three homogeneous groups (group 1, 20-29; group 2 30-39; group 3, 40-50 years). QT rate dependence was larger during the day in both genders. Women showed stronger QT rate dependence (0.195 during the day vs. 0.154 in men P< .0001). The circadian modulation decreased with increasing age (day/night slope differences: group 1, 0.038; group 2, 0.031; group 3, 0.001; analysis of variance P<.05). In addition, QT rate dependence increased as mean RR decreased (r = -0.58, P<.0001) and decreased as HRV parameters increased. Multiple influences on QT rate dependence can be found: not only circadian and gender modulation, but also age, heart rate, and HRV interventions.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aging / physiology*
  • Circadian Rhythm / physiology*
  • Electrocardiography, Ambulatory*
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Heart Rate / physiology*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Reference Values
  • Sex Characteristics*