Purpose: This study was undertaken to establish the pattern of specific p53 gene mutations in prostate cancer within primary tumors and distant metastases.
Materials and methods: We performed polymerase chain reaction-single-strand conformation polymorphism and sequencing analyses of p53 exons 5-8 in DNA extracted from 22 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues from 17 patients. Samples from three patients included specimens from primary and metastatic sites (paired specimens).
Results: G:C-to-A:T transitions were the most common point mutations (64%). Six (55%) of 11 G:C-to-A:T transitions occurred at CpG dinucleotides in five hot-spot codons (175, 245, 248, 273, and 282). Sequencing analysis of the paired samples revealed that two of the three pairs had the same mutation in both. Sequencing analysis of DNA from a different area of one of the primary tumors revealed a different mutation in the p53 gene.
Conclusions: Our results suggest that specific p53 mutations participate in the progression of human prostate cancer. These findings support those of others that indicate that the primary cancer is heterogeneous and clonal expansion occurs during the progression of clinically detectable prostate cancer. Our data also imply that p53 mutations at the primary site may be predictive of metastases.