Sox proteins belong to the HMG box superfamily of DNA-binding proteins and are found throughout the animal kingdom. They are involved in the regulation of such diverse developmental processes as germ layer formation, organ development and cell type specifi-cation. Hence, deletion or mutation of Sox proteins often results in developmental defects and congenital disease in humans. Sox proteins perform their function in a complex interplay with other transcription factors in a manner highly dependent on cell type and promoter context. They exhibit a remarkable crosstalk and functional redundancy among each other.