During the past year, additional insights into systems that regulate antimicrobial peptide production in Drosophila were reported. Granulysin, a peptide stored in the cytoplasmic granules of human natural killer cells and cytolytic T cells, was shown to kill Mycobacterium tuberculosis. More data implicating antimicrobial peptides in the pathogenesis of bronchopulmonary infections in cystic fibrosis appeared. Studies that examined the potential contributions of antimicrobial peptides to regional innate immunity gained in prominence. Efforts to design peptide analogues to prevent or treat infections continued.