Influence of permethrin, diazinon and ivermectin treatments on insecticide resistance in the horn fly (Diptera: Muscidae)

Int J Parasitol. 1999 Jan;29(1):125-35; discussion 137-8. doi: 10.1016/s0020-7519(98)00196-9.


The history of insecticide resistance in the horn fly, Haematobia irritans, and the relationship between the characteristics of horn fly biology and insecticide use on resistance development is discussed. Colonies of susceptible horn flies were selected for resistance with six insecticide treatment regimens: continuous single use of permethrin, diazinon and ivermectin: permethrin-diazinon (1:2) mixture; and permethrin-diazinon and permethrin-ivermectin rotation (4-month cycle). Under laboratory conditions, resistance developed during generations 21, 31 and 30 to permethrin, diazinon and ivermectin, respectively. The magnitude of resistance ranged from < 3-fold with ivermectin to 1470-fold with permethrin. Field studies demonstrated that use of a single class of insecticidal ear tag during the horn-fly season resulted in product failure within 3-4 years for pyrethroids and organophosphates, respectively. In laboratory studies, use of alternating insecticides or a mixture of insecticides delayed the onset of resistance for up to 12 generations and reduced the magnitude of pyrethroid resistance. In field studies, yearly alternated use of pyrethroids and organophosphates did not slow or reverse pyrethroid resistance (Barros et al., unpublished data), while a 2-year alternated use with organophosphates resulted in partial reversion of pyrethroid resistance. When pyrethroid and organophosphate ear tags were used in a mosaic strategy at two different locations, efficacy of products did not change during a 3-year period.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Diazinon / pharmacology
  • Insecticide Resistance*
  • Insecticides / pharmacology*
  • Ivermectin / pharmacology
  • Muscidae / drug effects*
  • Permethrin
  • Pyrethrins / pharmacology


  • Insecticides
  • Pyrethrins
  • Permethrin
  • Ivermectin
  • Diazinon