Intake of specific carotenoids and flavonoids and the risk of lung cancer in women in Barcelona, Spain

Nutr Cancer. 1998;32(3):154-8. doi: 10.1080/01635589809514734.


Newly available data of a case-control study of lung cancer in women in Spain were analyzed to assess the relationship with the intake of specific carotenoids (alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, lutein, and lycopene) and flavonoids (quercetin, kaempferol, myricetin, and luteolin). The study included 103 cases and 206 hospital controls, matched by age and residence. Usual food intake was estimated through a food-frequency questionnaire. With adjustment for smoking habit and vitamin E, vitamin C, and total flavonoid intake, no association was found for the intake of alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, or lutein. The odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for women in the highest tertile of lycopene intake with respect to the lowest was 0.56 (0.26-1.24), with p for trend = 0.15. A nonsignificant association was observed for the highest vs. lowest tertile intake of kaempferol (odds ratio = 0.51, 95% confidence interval = 0.22-1.17), with p for trend = 0.10, after adjustment for smoking and vitamin E, vitamin C, and total carotenoid intake. No protective effect was observed for quercetin or luteolin or for total flavonoid intake.

Publication types

  • Multicenter Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Carotenoids / administration & dosage*
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Diet*
  • Female
  • Flavonoids / administration & dosage*
  • Humans
  • Lung Neoplasms / epidemiology*
  • Lung Neoplasms / prevention & control*
  • Middle Aged
  • Odds Ratio
  • Risk Factors
  • Spain / epidemiology
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Women's Health


  • Flavonoids
  • Carotenoids