Aflatoxin and liver cancer in Sudan

Nutr Cancer. 1998;32(3):174-80. doi: 10.1080/01635589809514737.


This study investigated whether aflatoxin contamination of peanut products may contribute to the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in Sudan. Thirty-seven peanut butter and peanut samples were collected from local markets. Aflatoxin concentrations were significantly higher in West Sudan [87.4 +/- 197.3 (SD) micrograms/kg], a high-risk area, than in Central Sudan (8.5 +/- 6.8 micrograms/kg), a low-risk area. In West Sudan, humid local storage conditions of peanut products were related to high aflatoxin concentrations. In a small case-control study of HCC patients (n = 24) and controls (n = 34), an odds ratio of 7.5 (95% confidence interval = 1.4-40.2) was observed for humid vs. dry local storage conditions. Development of an index of individual HCC exposure was less successful, probably because of year-to-year variability in aflatoxins in food. These preliminary findings justify further research into the role of aflatoxins and hepatitis in HCC incidence in Sudan.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aflatoxins / adverse effects*
  • Age Distribution
  • Aged
  • Arachis
  • Carcinogens / adverse effects*
  • Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / epidemiology
  • Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / etiology*
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Female
  • Food Contamination*
  • Humans
  • Liver Neoplasms / epidemiology
  • Liver Neoplasms / etiology*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Prevalence
  • Risk Factors
  • Sex Distribution
  • Sudan / epidemiology
  • Surveys and Questionnaires


  • Aflatoxins
  • Carcinogens