The effect of patient education in patients with asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is not previously investigated using the St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ). We randomly allocated at our out-patient clinic 78 asthmatics and 62 patients with COPD to either a control or an intervention group. Intervention consisted of two 2-h group sessions and one to two individual sessions each by a nurse and a physiotherapist. A self-management plan was developed. Baseline quality of life assessment showed comparable scores independent of treatment groups among asthmatics and patients with COPD, but statistically significantly better scores (p < 0.05) for the educated asthma group after 12 mo compared with the control group. This aligned with the 12-mo SGRQ assessment, which revealed better symptoms, activity, impact, and total scores by 11 (p < 0.02), 15 (p < 0.01), 19 (p < 0.001), and 16 (p < 0.001) units, respectively. Patient education among asthmatics increased the FEV1 by a mean value of 6.1% (SD, 12) compared with the control group (p < 0.05). Education among patients with COPD did not indicate a significant increase in HRQoL as measured by the SGRQ or increased FEV1. We conclude that patient education increased HRQoL and FEV1 among asthmatics, but not among patients with COPD.