The evolutionary relationships among 13 species representing all six subgenera of the shrimp genus Penaeus were examined using 558 bp of mitochondrial (mt) DNA from the cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene. Analyses of this sequence revealed high genetic divergence between species (d = 8-24%), a finding which contrasts with previous work, which indicated that genetic diversity, based on electrophoretic analysis of allozymes, was extremely low in Penaeus. Three tree-building methods (maximum parsimony, neighbor joining, and maximum likelihood) were concordant in indicating that current subgenera assignments do not reflect evolutionary partitions within the genus Penaeus. While the molecular phylogenies cast doubt on the validity of subgenera, the observed relationships are concordant with biogeographic boundaries across the tropical range of Penaeus. Both the western Atlantic and eastern Pacific contain monophyletic species pairs which cluster together in all analyses. The Indo-Pacific contains a putative basal taxa (P. indicus), the deepest mtDNA lineages, and the highest diversity, including representatives of all three primary lineages observed in Penaeus. These data are consistent with the suggestion by Dall et al. (1990) that Penaeus arose in the Indo-Pacific and radiated eastward and westward to account for the current circumtropical distribution of the genus. This phylogenetic framework for Penaeus will enhance the scientific foundations for wildlife resource management and breeding experiments (hybridization and related manipulations) designed to improve the commercial value of captive strains.
Copyright 1998 Academic Press.