Type 1 1/2 diabetes: myth or reality?

Autoimmunity. 1999;29(1):65-83. doi: 10.3109/08916939908995974.


The disease process in classical Type 1 diabetes patients (IDDM) is believed to be autoimmune. In contrast, the disease process in classical Type 2 diabetes patients (NIDDM) is not autoimmune and a decreased sensitivity to insulin action is the main abnormality. The clinical distinction of Type 1 diabetes versus Type 2 diabetes is recognized to be imperfect and has limitations. There is a group of individuals (Type 1 1/2 diabetes), who present like typical NIDDM, but have some of the immunological and clinical features of IDDM. We review the current medical literature on Type 1 1/2 diabetes with special reference to its clinical characteristics, natural history and pathophysiology. Since the distinction between these two forms of diabetes may have important therapeutic implications especially with regards to the benefits of insulin therapy in patients with Type 1 1/2 diabetes and because of the need for uniformity in its diagnosis we recommend that both clinical plus biochemical criteria (the presence of ICA and/or GAD Ab, HLA typing and tests to quantify beta cell function) be used to make a diagnosis. Comparative studies in the area of cytokine production, T cell reactivity and autoantibody clustering between classic Type 1 diabetes and Type 1 1/2 diabetes patients are needed as are studies with the animal model of Type 1 1/2 diabetes, Psammomys obesus.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Diabetes Mellitus / classification*
  • Diabetes Mellitus / diagnosis*
  • Diabetes Mellitus / immunology
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / classification
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / diagnosis
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / immunology
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / classification
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / diagnosis
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / immunology
  • Glutamate Decarboxylase / immunology
  • Humans
  • Islets of Langerhans / immunology
  • Islets of Langerhans / physiology


  • Glutamate Decarboxylase