Characterization of the heme and pyridoxal phosphate cofactors of human cystathionine beta-synthase reveals nonequivalent active sites

Biochemistry. 1999 Mar 2;38(9):2738-44. doi: 10.1021/bi9826052.


Cystathionine beta-synthase is an unusual enzyme that requires the cofactors heme and pyridoxal phosphate (PLP) to catalyze the condensation of homocysteine and serine to generate cystathionine. This transsulfuration reaction represents one of two major cellular routes for detoxification of homocysteine, which is a risk factor for atherosclerosis. While the beta-replacement reaction catalyzed by this enzyme suggests a role for the pyridoxal phosphate, the role of the heme is uncertain. In this study we have examined the effect of changing one of the ligands to the heme on the activity of the enzyme. Binding of carbon monooxide results in the displacement of a thiolate ligand to the ferrous heme, and is accompanied by complete loss of cystathionine beta-synthase activity. Furthermore, inhibition by CO is competitive with respect to homocysteine, providing the first indication that the homocysteine binding site is in the proximity of heme. Binding of both CO and cyanide to ferrous cystathionine beta-synthase occurs in two distinct isotherms and indicates that the hemes are nonequivalent. We have employed fluorescence spectroscopy to characterize the bound PLP and its interaction with serine. PLP bound to cystathionine beta-synthase is weakly fluorescent and exists as a mixture of the protonated and unprotonated tautomers. Reaction with hydroxylamine releases the oxime and greatly enhances the associated fluorescence. Binding of serine is accompanied by a shift to the unprotonated tautomer of the external aldimine as well as the appearance of a new fluorescent species at approximately 400 nm that could be due to the aminoacrylate or to a gemdiamine intermediate. These data provide the first characterization of the PLP bound to cystathionine beta-synthase. Treatment of cystathionine beta-synthase with hydroxylamine releases two PLPs after 1 day and results in complete loss of activity. Incubation for an additional 3-4 days results in the release of two more PLPs. These data lead us to revise the PLP stoichiometry to 4 per tetramer, and to the conclusion that the heme and PLP sites in cystathionine beta-synthase are nonequivalent.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Binding Sites
  • Carbon Monoxide / chemistry
  • Catalysis
  • Cyanides / chemistry
  • Cystathionine beta-Synthase / antagonists & inhibitors
  • Cystathionine beta-Synthase / chemistry*
  • Cystathionine beta-Synthase / genetics
  • Enzyme Activation
  • Heme / chemistry*
  • Humans
  • Ligands
  • Pyridoxal Phosphate / chemistry*
  • Recombinant Proteins / chemistry
  • Serine / chemistry
  • Spectrometry, Fluorescence


  • Cyanides
  • Ligands
  • Recombinant Proteins
  • Heme
  • Serine
  • Pyridoxal Phosphate
  • Carbon Monoxide
  • Cystathionine beta-Synthase