X-linked myotubular myopathy (XLMTM) is a congenital muscle disorder mainly affecting newborn males. Neonatal muscle weakness and hypotonia usually leads to a rapid demise. The responsible gene, MTM1, was isolated in 1996, and mutational data derived from 90 patients have been published. We report on our findings in a further 53 patients, using genomic DNA and mRNA screening protocols. Thirty-four novel mutations were identified in 37 cases, and six known mutations found in 10 other patients. The 34 new mutations include five large deletions, eight nonsense, six frameshift, five missense, and eight splice-site mutations, whereas two intronic variants causing partial exon skipping represent the first report on such a mechanism in MTM1. Two deletions, one involving exon 1, and the second exon 15, are the first defects to be identified in these exons. The heterogeneity of the mutations, their mutational origins, and the varied ethnic backgrounds of the patients, indicate that the majority of XLMTM families are affected by unique MTM1 mutations.