Endogenous formation and significance of 1,N2-propanodeoxyguanosine adducts

Mutat Res. 1999 Mar 8;424(1-2):71-81. doi: 10.1016/s0027-5107(99)00009-3.


The detection of 1,N2-propanodeoxyguanosine adducts in the DNA of rodent and human tissues as endogenous lesions has raised important questions regarding the source of their formation and their roles in carcinogenesis. Both in vitro and in vivo studies have generated substantial evidence which supports the involvement of short- and long-chain enals derived from oxidized polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in their formation. These studies show that: (1) the cyclic propano adducts are common products from reactions of enals with DNA bases; (2) they are formed specifically from linoleic acid (LA; omega-6) and docosahexaenoic acid (omega-3) under in vitro stimulated lipid peroxidation conditions; (3) the levels of propano adducts are dramatically increased in rat liver DNA upon depletion of glutathione; (4) the adduct levels are increased in the liver DNA of the CCl4-treated rats and the mutant strain of Long Evans rats which are genetically predisposed to increased lipid peroxidation; and (5) adduct levels are significantly higher in older rats than in newborn rats. These studies collectively demonstrate that tissue lipid peroxidation is a main endogenous pathway leading to propano adduction in DNA. The possible contribution from environmental sources, however, cannot be completely excluded. The mutagenicity of enals and the mutations observed in site-specific mutagenesis studies using a model 1,N2-propanodeoxyguanosine adduct suggest that these adducts are potential promutagenic lesions. The increased levels of the propano adducts in the tissue of carcinogen-treated animals also provide suggestive evidence for their roles in carcinogenesis. The involvement of these adducts in tumor promotion is speculated on the basis that oxidative condition in tissues is believed to be associated with this process.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • DNA Adducts*
  • DNA Damage*
  • Deoxyguanosine / analogs & derivatives*
  • Humans
  • Lipid Peroxidation
  • Liver / metabolism
  • Mice
  • Rats
  • Rats, Inbred F344
  • Rats, Long-Evans


  • DNA Adducts
  • 1,N(2)-propanodeoxyguanosine
  • Deoxyguanosine