We have analyzed the nucleotide sequences of the nodX genes from two strains of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae able to nodulate Afghan peas (strains A1 and Himalaya) and from two strains of R. leguminosarum bv. trifolii (ANU843 and CSF). The nodX genes of strains A1 and ANU843 were shown to be functional for the induction of nodules on Afghan peas. To analyze the cause of phenotypic differences of strain A1 and strain TOM we have studied the composition of the lipochitin-oligosaccharides (LCOs) produced by strain A1 after induction by the flavonoid naringenin or various pea root exudates. The structural analysis of the LCOs by mass spectrometry revealed that strain A1 synthesizes a family of at least 23 different LCOs. The use of exudates instead of naringenin resulted only in quantitative differences in the ratios of various LCOs produced.