Cytokine responses in virus infections: effects on pathogenesis, recovery and persistence

Curr Opin Microbiol. 1998 Aug;1(4):411-8. doi: 10.1016/s1369-5274(98)80058-1.


During the past year, significant advances have been made in our understanding of cytokine regulation and the respective roles played by T helper cells type 1 and 2 immune responses during virus infection. Numerous mechanisms by which viruses may evade host immune defences have now been identified, some directly influencing cytokine activity. Major advances have also been made in delineating the roles of cytokines and chemokines at different stages in the pathogenesis of HIV infection.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Cytokines / biosynthesis*
  • HIV Infections / immunology
  • HIV-1 / immunology
  • Models, Immunological*
  • T-Lymphocyte Subsets
  • Viral Vaccines / immunology
  • Virus Diseases / etiology
  • Virus Diseases / immunology*


  • Cytokines
  • Viral Vaccines