14-3-3 protein, neuron-specific enolase, and S-100 protein in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord. Jan-Feb 1999;10(1):40-6. doi: 10.1159/000017095.


We explored simultaneously 14-3-3 protein, neuron-specific enolase (NSE), and one astroglial protein, S-100, recently proposed as Creutzfeld-Jakob disease (CJD) markers, in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of 129 patients with suspected CJD. Cutoff values for NSE and S-100 were established at 25 and 2.5 ng/ml, respectively. The highest sensitivity was observed for S-100 (94.2%) followed by 14-3-3 (89.8%) and NSE (79.7%), while the highest specificity in CJD diagnosis was obtained with 14-3-3 protein (100%) as compared with NSE (91.5%) and S-100 (85.4%). No influence of sex, genotype at codon 129 of the prion protein gene, time between sampling, and death or disease duration has been found. Based on 90 cases initially referred as 'probable' or 'possible' CJD, with 14-3-3, NSE, or S-100 we could correctly discriminate between 'CJD' or 'non-CJD' categories in 94.4, 86.5, and 90% of the cases, respectively. When limited to 'possible CJD' cases, diagnosis based on one of the three CSF proteins was accurate in 98, 90.7 and 87.3%, respectively. In view of the fact that the CSF 14-3-3 protein test alone has the highest specificity and good sensitivity, it appears that there is no additional advantage at the moment to include NSE and/or S-100 protein in the exploration of clinically suspected CJD cases.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • 14-3-3 Proteins
  • Adult
  • Creutzfeldt-Jakob Syndrome / cerebrospinal fluid*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Immunochemistry
  • Male
  • Phosphopyruvate Hydratase / cerebrospinal fluid*
  • Predictive Value of Tests
  • Proteins / metabolism*
  • S100 Proteins / cerebrospinal fluid*
  • Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase*


  • 14-3-3 Proteins
  • Proteins
  • S100 Proteins
  • Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase
  • Phosphopyruvate Hydratase