Marked hyperglycemia (blood glucose approximately 14 mmol/l) slows gastric emptying and affects the perception of sensations arising from the gut. Elevation of blood glucose within the physiological range also slows gastric emptying. This study aimed to determine whether physiological changes in blood glucose affect proximal gastric compliance and/or the perception of gastric distension in the fasting state. Paired studies were conducted in 10 fasting healthy volunteers. On a single day, isovolumetric and isobaric distensions of the proximal stomach were performed using an electronic barostat while the blood glucose concentration was maintained at 4 and 9 mmol/l in random order. Sensations were quantified using visual analog scales. The blood glucose concentration had no effect on the pressure-volume relationship during either isovolumetric or isobaric distensions or the perception of gastric distension. At both blood glucose concentrations, the perceptions of fullness, nausea, bloating, and abdominal discomfort, but not hunger or desire to eat, were related to intrabag volume (P </= 0.002) and pressure (P </= 0.01). We conclude that, in the fasted state, elevations of blood glucose within the physiological range do not affect proximal gastric compliance or the perception of gastric distension.