Locust Ion Transport Peptide (ITP) a member of the arthropod neuropeptide family which includes hyperglycemic, vitellogenesis-inhibiting, and moult-inhibiting hormones (CHH, VIH, MIH, respectively) was synthesized as proposed by Meredith et al. (1996) with terminal amidation of amino acid residue 72 and with 3 disulphide bridges. This is the first member of this family to be synthesized. Biological activities of synthetic ITP (synITP) were very similar to those previously reported for ITP purified from Schistocerca corpora cardiaca (ScgITP) and partially sequenced by Audsley et al. (1992a, b). Dose-response curves for both synITP and ScgITP on ileal transport of Cl- (measured as increased short-circuit current, delta Isc), were similar with a EC50 of 1-2 nM. The Isc time course and maximum delta Isc across ileal epithelia at different dosages of synITP and ScgITP had similar patterns as did changes in transepithelial open-circuit potential (Vt) and resistance (Rt), reflecting changes in salt transport which drives fluid absorption. Disulphide bridges were shown to be required for biological activity of synITP, which caused the same 4-fold increase in ileal fluid transport rate (Jv) as previously reported for ScgITP. Both synITP and ScgITP caused only partial stimulation of rectal Isc and had no significant effect on rectal Jv. These results indicate that the structure of ITP predicted earlier from cDNA is correct.