The current report describes the distributions of selected demographic and biochemical parameters, clearance, and other transport values among patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis (PD) and evaluates the associates of mortality using those values, with and without clearance and peritoneal equilibration test (PET) data. All patients receiving PD on January 1, 1994 were selected (n = 2,686). Patients who switched to another form of dialysis during the study period were removed from the study at the time of therapy change. Working files were constructed from the clinical database to include demographic, laboratory, and outcome data. Laboratory data were available in only 1,603 patients and were used to evaluate the biochemical associates of mortality after merging the biochemical, demographic, and outcome data. Patients with clearance data or PET studies underwent a second analysis to assess the effects of peritoneal and renal clearance on survival. The analysis of demographic and laboratory data confirmed the importance of age and serum albumin concentration as predictors of death. Residual renal function (RRF) was strongly correlated with survival, but peritoneal clearance was not. Several possible explanations for the lack of correlation between peritoneal clearance and survival are discussed. The data suggest that RRF and peritoneal clearance may be separate and not equivalent quantities. Substantial work is required to confirm or refute these findings, because the information is essential to establish the adequate dose of PD in patients with various degrees of RRF.