The hypothesis was that bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) adversely affects cognitive performance at school age. This prospective cohort study examined three groups of children at 8 to 10 years of age. Group 1 (n = 311) consisted of very low birth weight (VLBW) infants without BPD and Group 2 (n = 95) consisted of VLBW infants with BPD. Group 3 (n = 188) consisted of term infants without BPD. Regression analysis determined the effect of BPD on eight performance measures while controlling for possible confounding variables. Children in Group 3 had the best performance and children in Group 2 had the poorest performance on all measures. These differences were significant (p = .0001) for the Full Scale IQ, Performance IQ, and reading and math grades and ages. Children in Groups 3 and 1 performed better than children in Group 2 for the Verbal IQ (p = .0001) and the Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration (p = .0012), but for these two measures there was no significant difference between children in Groups 3 and 1. Thus, poorer performance was found in VLBW infants with a history of BPD.