Academic outcome in long-term survivors of pediatric liver transplantation

J Dev Behav Pediatr. 1999 Feb;20(1):17-23. doi: 10.1097/00004703-199902000-00003.


Fifty long-term (3-9 year) survivors of pediatric liver transplantation were assessed using IQ, achievement, and school history measures. Forty-seven of these children had been evaluated before transplantation on intellectual measures, with mean scores for the group found to be in the low average range. At follow-up evaluation, the scores remained in the low average range on all intellectual measures; performance on academic tests was also within the low average range. Thirteen children (26%) were classified as having learning problems based on discrepancies between intellectual and academic function, but only five of them (38%) had received special education services. Nine of the children (18%) had IQ scores less than 70. Academic outcome did not relate to diagnosis, time between diagnosis and transplantation, age at time of transplantation, or average levels of cyclosporin A. Careful assessment and appropriate special education services are indicated to optimize the educational outcome of children who survive liver transplantation.

MeSH terms

  • Achievement*
  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Age Factors
  • Chi-Square Distribution
  • Child
  • Child Development
  • Child, Preschool
  • Developmental Disabilities / etiology*
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Intellectual Disability / etiology
  • Intelligence*
  • Learning Disabilities / etiology
  • Liver Transplantation* / adverse effects
  • Liver Transplantation* / psychology
  • Male
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Time Factors
  • Wechsler Scales