We describe a pedigree in which 3 members in the same generation are affected by Rolandic epilepsy (RE), paroxysmal exercise-induced dystonia (PED), and writer's cramp (WC). Both the seizures and paroxysmal dystonia had a strong age-related expression that peaked during childhood, whereas the WC, also appearing in childhood, has been stable since diagnosis. Genome-wide linkage analysis performed under the assumption of recessive inheritance identified a common homozygous haplotype in a critical region spanning 6 cM between markers D16S3133 and D16S3131 on chromosome 16, cosegregating with the affected phenotype and producing a multipoint LOD score value of 3.68. Although its features are unique, this syndrome presents striking analogies with the autosomal dominant infantile convulsions and paroxysmal coreoathetosis (ICCA) syndrome, linked to a 10 cM region between D16S401 and D16S517, which entirely includes the 6 cM of the RE-PED-WC critical region. The same gene may be responsible for both RE-PED-WC and ICCA, with specific mutations explaining each of these Mendelian disorders. This report shows that idiopathic focal disorders such as epilepsy and dystonia, can be caused by the same genetic abnormality, may have a transient expression, and may be inherited as an autosomal recessive trait.