Experimental studies have shown that stents implanted at the aorta become incorporated within the aortic wall and can be further expanded in growing animals. Few clinical studies have shown that the stent repair of severe coarctation of aorta provides excellent initial results, and little is known on the follow-up of these patients. We assessed the immediate and follow-up results obtained in a series of 48 patients (mean age 14+/-12 years) with severe coarctation of the aorta who were treated by Palmaz stent implantation; 30 of them (63%) underwent angiographic follow-up studies at a mean of 25+/-11 months after treatment. Quantitative serial analysis of the aortogram (baseline, after treatment, and at follow-up) was performed. Significant relief (mean residual gradient 3+/-4 mm Hg) was always obtained after stent implantation. The isthmus, when hypoplastic (60%), was always expanded with the stent. One associated aneurysm became occluded after the implant. Complications included aortic disruption, stent migration, and decreased or absent femoral pulses. At angiographic follow-up, the stent remained always in place, without recoil. In 22 patients (73%), there were no detectable neointimal proliferation at late angiogram; however, 8 patients (27%) had some degree of intimal thickening (1 to 5 mm), causing mild restenosis in 3 patients treated at early age, and nonsignificant lumen reduction in 5. The serial aortogram analysis revealed a minor but significant increase in nonstented aortic diameters that seemed related to the normal growth of children. No need for stent reexpansion was observed at 2-year follow-up (mean). Two patients (7%) developed late small aneurysm formation at the stented wall; both were occluded by the insertion of coils through the stent orifices. We conclude that stent treatment for severe coarctation of aorta provides excellent immediate and long-term results in young adults and children. However, at early age, restenosis by intimal growth may develop.