Identification of four CCCH zinc finger proteins in Xenopus, including a novel vertebrate protein with four zinc fingers and severely restricted expression

Gene. 1999 Mar 4;228(1-2):133-45. doi: 10.1016/s0378-1119(98)00617-9.


Tristetraprolin (TTP), the prototype of a class of CCCH zinc finger proteins, is a phosphoprotein that is rapidly and transiently induced by growth factors and serum in fibroblasts. Recent evidence suggests that a physiological function of TTP is to inhibit tumor necrosis factor alpha secretion from macrophages by binding to and destabilizing its mRNA (Carballo, E., Lai, W.S., Blackshear, P.J., 1998. Science, 281, 1001-1005). To investigate possible functions of CCCH proteins in early development of Xenopus, we isolated four Xenopus cDNAs encoding members of this class. Based on 49% overall amino acid identity and 84% amino acid identity within the double zinc finger domain, one of the Xenopus proteins (XC3H-1) appears to be the homologue of TTP. By similar analyses, XC3H-2 and XC3H-3 are homologues of ERF-1 (cMG1, TIS11B) and ERF-2 (TIS11D). A fourth protein, XC3H-4, is a previously unidentified member of the CCCH class of vertebrate zinc finger proteins; it contains four Cx8Cx5Cx3H repeats, two of which are YKTEL Cx8Cx5Cx3H repeats that are closely related to sequences found in the other CCCH proteins. Whereas XC3H-1, XC3H-2, and XC3H-3 were widely expressed in adult tissues, XC3H-4 mRNA was not detected in any of the adult tissues studied except for the ovary. Its expression appeared to be limited to the ovary, oocyte, egg and the early embryonic stages leading up to the mid-blastula transition. Its mRNA was highly expressed in oocytes of all ages, and was enriched in the animal pole cytosol of mature oocytes. Maternal expression was also seen with the other three messages, suggesting the possibility that these proteins are involved in regulating mRNA stability in oocyte maturation and/or early embryogenesis.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Animals
  • Blotting, Northern
  • Cell Cycle Proteins
  • Cloning, Molecular
  • DNA, Complementary / chemistry
  • DNA, Complementary / genetics
  • DNA-Binding Proteins*
  • Female
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental
  • Gene Library
  • Immediate-Early Proteins*
  • In Situ Hybridization
  • Kidney / metabolism
  • Male
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Ovary / metabolism
  • Phosphoproteins / chemistry
  • Proteins / genetics
  • RNA / genetics
  • RNA / metabolism
  • RNA, Messenger / genetics
  • RNA-Binding Proteins
  • Sequence Alignment
  • Sequence Analysis, DNA
  • Sequence Homology, Amino Acid
  • Tissue Distribution
  • Tristetraprolin
  • Vertebrates / genetics*
  • Xenopus / embryology
  • Xenopus / genetics*
  • Xenopus / growth & development
  • Xenopus Proteins*
  • Zinc Fingers / genetics*


  • Cell Cycle Proteins
  • DNA, Complementary
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Immediate-Early Proteins
  • Phosphoproteins
  • Proteins
  • RNA, Messenger
  • RNA-Binding Proteins
  • Tristetraprolin
  • Xenopus Proteins
  • ZFP36 protein, Xenopus
  • ZFP36L2 protein, Xenopus
  • ZFP36L2.1 protein, Xenopus
  • zfp36l1 protein, Xenopus
  • RNA

Associated data

  • GENBANK/AF061980
  • GENBANK/AF061981
  • GENBANK/AF061982
  • GENBANK/AF061983