P-selectin is a leukocyte adhesion receptor present in endothelial cells and platelets. We examined the role of P-selectin in the autologous phase of an accelerated model of anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM) glomerulonephritis using P-selectin-deficient mice and chimeric mice expressing P-selectin only in platelets or endothelial cells. P-selectin-deficient mice exhibited more severe glomerular damage with increased interstitial mononuclear leukocytic infiltrates, and had significantly increased proteinuria and mortality when compared to wild-type mice. P-selectin on the endothelium was predominantly responsible for protection from the exacerbated disease, because chimeric mice with endothelial P-selectin, and not mice with platelet P-selectin, showed glomerular injury similar to that in wild-type animals. Levels of soluble circulating P-selectin were increased in nephritic wild-type mice and in chimeric mice with endothelial P-selectin, but not platelet P-selectin. Levels of soluble P-selectin, which has been shown to be anti-inflammatory in vitro, were inversely associated with the severity of disease. P-selectin was not expressed in the endothelium of the glomerulus or interstitium. Thus, the protective effect in wild-type mice may be accounted for, in part by soluble P-selectin shed by non-renal endothelial cells, although other endothelial P-selectin-dependent mechanisms cannot be ruled out.