We report two long-term hemodialysis patients who developed severe congestive heart failure attributable to cardiac heavy amyloid deposition. Both patients became hypotensive during dialysis sessions, gradually making it difficult to continue hemodialysis, and they died of congestive heart failure. At autopsy, left ventricle walls in each case contained diffuse extensive deposits of amyloid. The distribution of amyloid was not localized to vessel walls but was widely disseminated throughout the left ventricle walls and replaced myocardial muscle fibers. Immunohistochemical examination showed positive staining for anti-human beta2-microglobulin antibody. We conclude that cardiac dialysis-related amyloidosis should also be considered in long-term hemodialysis patients with congestive heart failure as a life-threatening complication.