In this Phase I clinical study, a novel ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide contrast agent, NC100150 Injection (Nycomed Imaging, Oslo, Norway, a part of Nycomed Amersham), was used in two-dimensional magnetic resonance coronary angiography (MRCA). Safety and imaging data were acquired from 18 healthy male volunteers at both 0.5 and 1.5 T, before and after the administration of NC100150 Injection. Through-plane and in-plane images of the right coronary artery were analyzed. The postcontrast imaging sequences used prepulses and a high flip angle, to introduce T1 weighting. At 1.5 T (TE 2.6 msec), the through-plane coronary artery signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) (P = 0.04), coronary artery-to-fat signal difference-to-noise ratio (SDNR) (P = 0.001), coronary artery-to-myocardium SDNR (P<0.001), and coronary artery delineation (P<0.001) were improved by the administration of NC100150 Injection. For in-plane imaging, coronary artery delineation improved, but there were no significant changes in the SNR and SDNR. At 0.5 T, with the longer TE (6.7 msec) imaging sequence used, there was a reduction in the SNR (P = 0.01), the fat SDNR (through-plane P = 0.02; in-plane P = 0.25), and the coronary artery diameter (P<0.01 in both imaging planes). There was a trend toward improvement in the myocardial SDNR and coronary artery delineation. In conclusion, NC 100150 Injection was given safely to 18 healthy subjects, with no major adverse reactions. Coronary artery delineation was improved in both imaging planes at 1.5 T, with a trend toward improvement at 0.5 T. At 1.5 T, with a short TE imaging sequence, the marked T1 shortening effects of NC100150 Injection were dominant, leading to an improvement in the quantitative parameters for the through-plane images. At 0.5 T, with a longer TE imaging sequence, the T2* effects of the contrast agent played a role in reducing the quantitative image parameters. With further optimization of imaging sequences, to take advantage of the long-lived intravascular T1 shortening effect of NC100150 Injection, further improvements in MRCA will be possible.