Hepatitis C virus (HCV) has been associated with various lymphoproliferative disorders, and a high prevalence (9%-32%) of chronic HCV infection has been demonstrated among patients with lymphoma. Dual coinfection by HIV and HCV has been demonstrated in approximately 40% of certain populations of HIV-infected individuals. Because of this high prevalence of coinfection by HIV and HCV, the known relations between HCV and lymphoproliferative disorders, and the association of HIV and B cell lymphoma, the potential association between chronic HCV and the development of AIDS-related lymphoma was examined. The prevalence of HCV infection in HIV-infected patients with lymphoma was compared with that in patients with AIDS, diagnosed on the basis of an illness other than lymphoma. Risk factors for HCV infection, overall, were also evaluated. Evidence of HCV infection was ascertained by assessing anti-HCV antibodies, and HCV RNA in serum. The study consisted of 99 homosexual/bisexual men with AIDS-related lymphoma, and 43 other AIDS patients. HCV infection was detected in 11 of 99 (11.1 %) men with lymphoma, and in 5 of 43 (11.6%) other AIDS patients. Further, in patients with AIDS-related lymphoma, no relation was found between HCV infection and lymphoma histology or site. History of use of injected illicit drugs was associated with a significantly elevated risk of HCV infection in the combined group of lymphoma and other AIDS patients. The current study demonstrates no relation between dual infection by HIV and HCV and subsequent increased risk of lymphoma.