Lysinuric protein intolerance (LPI; OMIM 222700) is a rare, recessive disorder with a worldwide distribution, but with a high prevalence in the Finnish population; symptoms include failure to thrive, growth retardation, muscle hypotonia and hepatosplenomegaly. A defect in the plasma membrane transport of dibasic amino acids has been demonstrated at the baso-lateral membrane of epithelial cells in small intestine and in renal tubules and in plasma membrane of cultured skin fibroblasts from LPI patients. The gene causing LPI has been assigned by linkage analysis to 14q11-13. Here we report mutations in SLC7A7 cDNA (encoding y+L amino acid transporter-1, y+LAT-1), which expresses dibasic amino-acid transport activity and is located in the LPI region, in 31 Finnish LPI patients and 1 Spanish patient. The Finnish patients are homozygous for a founder missense mutation leading to a premature stop codon. The Spanish patient is a compound heterozygote with a missense mutation in one allele and a frameshift mutation in the other. The frameshift mutation generates a premature stop codon, eliminating the last one-third of the protein. The missense mutation abolishes y+LAT-1 amino-acid transport activity when co-expressed with the heavy chain of the cell-surface antigen 4F2 (4F2hc, also known as CD98) in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Our data establish that mutations in SLC7A7 cause LPI.