Socioeconomic and behavioral factors leading to acquired bacterial resistance to antibiotics in developing countries

Emerg Infect Dis. Jan-Feb 1999;5(1):18-27. doi: 10.3201/eid0501.990103.


In developing countries, acquired bacterial resistance to antimicrobial agents is common in isolates from healthy persons and from persons with community-acquired infections. Complex socioeconomic and behavioral factors associated with antibiotic resistance, particularly regarding diarrheal and respiratory pathogens, in developing tropical countries, include misuse of antibiotics by health professionals, unskilled practitioners, and laypersons; poor drug quality; unhygienic conditions accounting for spread of resistant bacteria; and inadequate surveillance.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / pharmacology
  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / therapeutic use
  • Bacteria / drug effects
  • Bacterial Infections / drug therapy*
  • Bacterial Infections / microbiology
  • Developing Countries
  • Drug Resistance, Microbial*
  • Health Behavior
  • Humans
  • Socioeconomic Factors


  • Anti-Bacterial Agents