5-year followup of a randomized prospective study comparing mitomycin C and bacillus Calmette-Guerin in patients with superficial bladder carcinoma. Swedish-Norwegian Bladder Cancer Study Group

J Urol. 1999 Apr;161(4):1124-7.


Purpose: We report the 5-year followup of a randomized comparison of mitomycin C and bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) in patients with superficial bladder carcinoma. Recurrence, progression and survival rates, crossover results, prognostic factors and long-term side effects were analyzed.

Materials and methods: A total of 261 patients were enrolled in the study, and the inclusion criteria were primary Tis, dysplasia G2, T1 G3 and multiple recurrent Ta/T1 G1-2 disease. Intravesical instillations of 40 mg. mitomycin C and 120 mg. Pasteur BCG, Danish strain 1331, were given for 2 years.

Results: After a median followup of 64 months 101 of the 250 evaluable patients (42%) were disease-free. A significant difference was noted in disease-free survival with BCG (p = 0.04), which was most pronounced for stage Tis disease. No difference in tumor progression, or crude or corrected survival was found between the 2 arms. Crossover treatment was successful in 39% of patients with second line BCG and 19% with second line mitomycin C. Independent risk factors for progression were initial p53 status and stage. Only the completion of treatment was predictive of outcome for patients treated with BCG. Bladder shrinkage occurred in 2.4% of patients.

Conclusions: Therapy with BCG was superior to mitomycin C for recurrence prophylaxis but no difference was found for progression and survival.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Comparative Study
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adjuvants, Immunologic / therapeutic use*
  • Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use*
  • BCG Vaccine / therapeutic use*
  • Disease Progression
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Humans
  • Mitomycin / therapeutic use*
  • Multivariate Analysis
  • Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology
  • Neoplasm Staging
  • Prognosis
  • Prospective Studies
  • Survival Rate
  • Time Factors
  • Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / drug therapy*
  • Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / mortality
  • Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / pathology


  • Adjuvants, Immunologic
  • Antibiotics, Antineoplastic
  • BCG Vaccine
  • Mitomycin