Characterization and functional properties of the extracellular coelomic hemoglobins from the deep-sea, hydrothermal vent scaleworm Branchipolynoe symmytilida

Proteins. 1999 Mar 1;34(4):435-42.


Polychaete species belonging to the genus Branchipolynoe are commensal with mussels from deep-sea hydrothermal vents and cold-seeps. Possessing hemoglobins (Hbs), the species B. symmytilida, which is found in the mussel Bathymodiolus thermophilus on the East Pacific Rise, is exceptional in a family normally devoid of respiratory pigments. In a previous paper we described two major coelomic extracellular hemoglobins with unique quaternary structures. Aiming to discern respiratory adaptations to the highly variable hydrothermal environment, this paper characterizes the functional properties of these Hbs and the coelomic fluid. The two major hemoglobins (C1 and C2) exhibit spectrophotometric characteristics of both intra- and extracellular hemoglobins. However, their amino acid content is very different from other known hemoglobins and is characterized by a high proportion of alanine and glycine (up to 40% cumulated in C1). C1 and C2 differ markedly by their cysteine content (0.8% and 13% respectively). The coelomic fluid exhibits a strong buffer capacity due to the high hemoglobin content (3 mM heme). In vitro, CO2 accumulation (up to 10-12 mM CO2 for PCO2 = 7.5 Torr) occurs with limited pH changes and is only partly accounted for by carbamino-Hb formation. The two hemoglobins exhibit high oxygen-affinities (P50 0.4 Torr for C1 and 0.9 Torr for C2, at 10 degrees C, pH 8) and a normal Bohr effect (phi values ranging from -0.54 and -0.37 at 10 degrees C, to -0.24 and -0.28 at 30 degrees C, for C1 and C2, respectively). Cooperativity values range from 0.8 to 1.9 for C1 and from 0.8 to 1.7 for C2. The temperature sensitivity of O2 affinity reflect deltaH values that decrease from -30 to -60 kJ x mol(-1) with increasing pH. C2 exhibits a slight specific effect of CO2 on oxygenation properties.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Amino Acids / chemistry
  • Animals
  • Carbon Dioxide / metabolism
  • Hemoglobin A / chemistry
  • Hemoglobin C / chemistry
  • Hemoglobins / chemistry*
  • Hemoglobins / isolation & purification
  • Humans
  • Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
  • Oxygen / metabolism
  • Polychaeta / chemistry*
  • Spectrophotometry
  • Temperature


  • Amino Acids
  • Hemoglobins
  • Carbon Dioxide
  • Hemoglobin C
  • Hemoglobin A
  • Oxygen