Effective prevention, or treatment, of invasive fungal infection in the neutropenic patient has hitherto been unsatisfactory because of either an inadequate anti-fungal spectrum of the agent or important toxicity. Itraconazole is effective against a broad spectrum of the opportunistic pathogens seen in Europe and North America. Prior problems with absorption, e.g. in the marrow transplant recipient, have been overcome with the introduction of an oral solution and an i.v. preparation. The deliberations of an expert meeting held in June, 1998 include recommendations on which patient requires one of these new preparations based on clinical trials, the dose and route. Important drug interactions are also detailed.