We analysed PRAD1/cyclin D1 expression in 20 patients with plasma cell malignancy by Northern analysis. 6/17 multiple myeloma patients and 3/3 plasma cell leukaemia patients showed PRAD1/cyclin D1 expression. This incidence appeared to be higher than the expected incidence based on previous studies. Southern analysis did not show rearrangement of the bcl-1 region. Although there was no statistical difference, the PRAD1/cyclin D1 negative group showed a 1-year survival of 81.8%, 3-year survival of 45.5% and 5-year survival of 22.7%, and those for the PRAD1/cyclin D1 positive group were 63.5%, 16.9% and 16.9%, respectively. Further study is required to determine whether PRAD1/cyclin D1 expression is a prognostic factor.