Thermodynamic measurements are reported for 51 DNA duplexes with A.A, C.C, G.G, and T.T single mismatches in all possible Watson-Crick contexts. These measurements were used to test the applicability of the nearest-neighbor model and to calculate the 16 unique nearest-neighbor parameters for the 4 single like with like base mismatches next to a Watson-Crick pair. The observed trend in stabilities of mismatches at 37 degrees C is G.G > T.T approximately A.A > C.C. The observed stability trend for the closing Watson-Crick pair on the 5' side of the mismatch is G.C >/= C.G >/= A.T >/= T.A. The mismatch contribution to duplex stability ranges from -2.22 kcal/mol for GGC.GGC to +2.66 kcal/mol for ACT.ACT. The mismatch nearest-neighbor parameters predict the measured thermodynamics with average deviations of DeltaG degrees 37 = 3.3%, DeltaH degrees = 7. 4%, DeltaS degrees = 8.1%, and TM = 1.1 degrees C. The imino proton region of 1-D NMR spectra shows that G.G and T.T mismatches form hydrogen-bonded structures that vary depending on the Watson-Crick context. The data reported here combined with our previous work provide for the first time a complete set of thermodynamic parameters for molecular recognition of DNA by DNA with or without single internal mismatches. The results are useful for primer design and understanding the mechanism of triplet repeat diseases.