Geographic distribution of vacA allelic types of Helicobacter pylori

Gastroenterology. 1999 Apr;116(4):823-30. doi: 10.1016/s0016-5085(99)70065-x.


Background & aims: Distinct allelic types of Helicobacter pylori vacA have been defined. The geographic distribution of vacA alleles and cagA was assessed in this study.

Methods: A total of 735 cultures from patients in 24 countries were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction and reverse hybridization on a line probe assay (LiPA).

Results: In 124 (16.9%) of the 735 cultures, multiple vacA genotypes were detected, permitting analysis of 611 strains. In Europe, a distribution gradient of s1 subtypes was observed. In northern and eastern Europe, 89% were subtype s1a. s1a and s1b were equally present in France and Italy, whereas in Spain and Portugal 89% of strains were subtype s1b. s1a and s1b were approximately equally prevalent in North America. In Central and South America, virtually all s1 strains were subtype s1b. Subtype s1c was observed in 77% of the s1 isolates from East Asia. m1 and m2a have equal presence, except on the Iberian peninsula and in Central and South America, where m1 (86.2%) is more prevalent than m2 (13.8%). Subtype m2b was found exclusively among East Asian s1c strains. In all parts of the world, vacA s1/cagA-positive genotypes were associated with peptic ulcer disease (P < 0.001).

Conclusions: These data indicate a geographic distribution of H. pylori genotypes and aid in understanding the relationship of H. pylori with disease.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Alleles*
  • Antigens, Bacterial*
  • Bacterial Proteins / genetics
  • Genotype
  • Helicobacter pylori / classification
  • Helicobacter pylori / genetics
  • Helicobacter pylori / isolation & purification*
  • Humans


  • Antigens, Bacterial
  • Bacterial Proteins
  • VacA protein, Helicobacter pylori
  • cagA protein, Helicobacter pylori