Setting: A tuberculosis referral hospital in Canada.
Objective: To determine the validity of acid-fast (AFB) smears of gastric aspirates (GA) in the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis, and to assess the prevalence of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) in GA isolates from such patients.
Design: A retrospective case review of our experience with AFB smears (Kinyoun) and cultures of GA and sputum over a 3-year period.
Results: From 1994 to 1996 inclusive, 1155 GA were performed in 889 patients. Mycobacteria were cultured from 109 (9%) GA. Thirteen of these were positive on smear (sensitivity 19%). All GA that were positive on smear were culture positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. There were no false positive smears (specificity 100%). The sensitivity and specificity of the sputum smear were 45% and 99%, respectively. Of the 96 culture positive, smear negative GA, 54 grew M. tuberculosis and 42 grew an NTM. Of 13 patients who had sputum and GA studied coincidentally, and in whom the sputum was both smear and culture positive, the GA culture was positive in 13 and the smear was positive in eight (66%).
Conclusion: AFB smear of GA is a relatively insensitive but highly specific indicator of pulmonary tuberculosis warranting institution of antituberculosis treatment. Gastric AFB smear positivity appears to reflect a high bacillary burden within the respiratory tract.