Previously we have shown that gabapentin causes a reduction of paired-pulse inhibition in the dentate gyrus of the urethane-anesthetized rat, which looks very much like the effect of baclofen on paired-pulse inhibition. In addition, it has been proposed that gabapentin increases release of GABA from non-vesicular stores and may, therefore, interact with GABA(B) mechanisms. Here we tested the ability of a GABA(B) agonist, baclofen, and a GABA(B) antagonist, CGP35348, to block the effect of gabapentin on paired-pulse inhibition in the dentate gyrus in urethane-anesthetized adult Sprague-Dawley rats. Both baclofen (6 mg/kg) and gabapentin (100 mg/kg) caused a long-lasting reduction of paired-pulse inhibition in the dentate gyrus when given alone or in combination. CGP35348 (45 mg/kg) blocked the effect of baclofen on paired-pulse inhibition, but did not alter the effect of gabapentin. Gabapentin also caused a reduction of inhibition in the CA1 region, indicating that its effect is not specific for the dentate gyrus. These results suggest that gabapentin produces its effect on paired-pulse inhibition independent from the effect of baclofen and not through non-vesicular release of GABA interacting with the GABA(B) receptor system.