Characterisation of novel plant genes encoding MEKK/STE11 and RAF-related protein kinases

Gene. 1999 Mar 18;229(1-2):171-81. doi: 10.1016/s0378-1119(99)00012-8.


Various elements of the MAP kinase module have been isolated in plants. We describe here the characterisation of 14 new plant cDNAs and genes encoding putative MAP kinase kinase kinases (MAP3Ks) related to the MEKK/STE11 and RAF protein kinases. Plant MAP3Ks are characterised by a variety of primary structures conserved within closely related proteins. Southern blot analysis suggests that plant MAP3Ks are heterogenous in their genomic structure, existing either as single copy genes or as small gene families. An RT-PCR analysis showed that in Arabidopsis thaliana, all organs studied contain detectable levels of transcripts of each of the MAP3K genes identified; however, signals obtained with mature pollen were weak or non-existent except for AtMAP3Kgamma. None of the reported genes share a cell-cycle or a cold stress regulated expression.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Arabidopsis
  • Brassica
  • Chromosome Mapping
  • Cloning, Molecular
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Plant
  • Genes, Plant*
  • MAP Kinase Kinase Kinases
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length
  • Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases / chemistry
  • Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases / genetics*
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-raf / chemistry
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-raf / genetics*
  • RNA, Messenger / genetics
  • Sequence Alignment


  • RNA, Messenger
  • Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-raf
  • MAP Kinase Kinase Kinases

Associated data

  • GENBANK/AJ010090
  • GENBANK/AJ010091
  • GENBANK/AJ010092
  • GENBANK/AJ010093
  • GENBANK/Y14199
  • GENBANK/Y14316