Background: Because of the increased propensity of intracoronary thrombi to form in cigarette smokers, percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTCA) for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) may be less effective in smokers. We sought to determine the impact of smoking status on outcome after PTCA for AMI.
Methods: Patients enrolled in the GUSTO IIb Angioplasty Substudy were randomly assigned to receive PTCA or tissue-plasminogen activator (tPA) for AMI. The interaction of smoking status (nonsmokers = 344, former smokers = 294, current smokers = 490) and treatment strategy with the occurrence of death, nonfatal reinfarction, or nonfatal, disabling stroke at 30 days was analyzed. Procedural success (residual stenosis <50% and Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction [TIMI] flow grade 3) was also analyzed for patients who underwent PTCA (n = 444).
Results: Among patients who underwent PTCA, nonsmokers had worse percent stenosis of the culprit lesion before reperfusion (P =.03) and more often had TIMI flow grade 0 (P <.05). Procedural success was more common in smokers (65.6%) than in former smokers (53.3%) and nonsmokers (52. 4%; P =.02), reflecting a higher rate of postprocedure TIMI 3 flow. PTCA was associated with a better 30-day outcome than tPA for current smokers (odds ratio [95% confidence interval] = 0.41 [0.19 to 0.88]), with a similar trend for former smokers (0.73 [0.34 to 1. 58]) and nonsmokers (0.77 [0.42 to 1.40]). At 6 months, smokers randomly assigned to PTCA also had fewer deaths and reinfarction (0. 58 [0.31 to 1.07]).
Conclusions: Although smoking status affects angiographic variables before and after PTCA for AMI, PTCA is associated with a better 30-day outcome than tPA regardless of smoking status and should be considered when readily available.