Neural messengers affect Drosophila heart rate. Serotonin increases larval, pupal, and adult heart rate. Octopamine and dopamine are inactive in larva, decrease pupal rate, and increase adult heart rate. Acetylcholine and nicotine decrease larval and pupal heart rate, while acetylcholine decreases and nicotine increases adult heart rate. Muscarine decreases pupal heart rate, but is inactive in larva and adult. GABA is inactive in larva and adult, but decreases pupal heart rate. Glutamate is inactive in larva and pupa, but decreases adult heart rate. Proctolin decreases heart rate in all three stages. Caffeine acts only to decrease adult heart rate.