Biotransformations of oxaliplatin in rat blood in vitro

J Biochem Mol Toxicol. 1999;13(3-4):159-69. doi: 10.1002/(sici)1099-0461(1999)13:3/4<159::aid-jbt6>3.0.co;2-c.

Abstract

The partitioning and biotransformations of oxaliplatin [trans-l-1,2-diaminocyclohexaneoxalatoplatinum(II)] were investigated in the blood of Wistar male rats in vitro. [3-H]-Oxaliplatin was incubated with rat blood at 37 degrees C in 5% CO2 and the concentrations of all Pt complexes containing the [3-H]-dach carrier ligand were followed for up to 12 hours. Decay for both oxaliplatin and Pt-dach in the plasma ultrafiltrate (PUF) was rapid (t 1/2 oxaliplatin = 0.68 h and t 1/2 for Pt-dach in the PUF = 0.85 h). After 9 hours, the concentration of oxaliplatin fell below the detection limit. By 4 hours, the PUF-Pt-dach reached a plateau, which was 12% of total Pt-dach. The binding of Pt-dach to red blood cells (RBCs) and plasma proteins was also very rapid (t 1/2 RBCs = 0.58 h and t 1/2 plasma proteins = 0.78 h) and reached equilibrium by 4 hours. At equilibrium, 35% of total Pt-dach was bound to plasma proteins, 12% was in the plasma ultrafiltrate, and 53% was found associated with RBCs. Of the Pt-dach associated with RBCs, 23% was bound to the RBC membrane, 58% was bound to RBC cytosolic proteins, and 19% was in the RBC cytosol ultrafiltrate. Thus, these studies confirm previous observations of oxaliplatin accumulation by rat RBCs. To better characterize the determinants of this accumulation, oxaliplatin and other Pt-dach complexes were compared with respect to both their uptake by rat RBCs and their partition coefficients in octanol and water. The rank order for the rate of uptake was ormaplatin approximately Pt(dach)Cl2 > oxaliplatin > Pt(dach)(mal); while the rank order for hydrophobicity was ormaplatin > Pt(dach)Cl2 > Pt(dach)(mal) > oxaliplatin. Thus, in general, Pt-dach complexes appeared to be taken up better by RBCs than cisplatin or carboplatin, and the hydrophobicity of most of the Pt-dach complexes appeared to correlate with uptake. However, factors other than the dach carrier ligand and hydrophobicity clearly influence uptake. The biotransformations of oxaliplatin in rat blood were characterized utilizing reverse-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). In the RBC cytosol, both oxaliplatin and Pt(dach)Cl2 were observed at early times, while Pt(dach)(GSH)2, Pt(dach)(Cys)2, Pt(dach)(GSH), and free dach accumulated and reached steady-state levels by 4 hours. Thus, in the RBC cytosol, only chemically unreactive biotransformation products such as free dach and Pt-dach complexes with cysteine and glutathione accumulated in significant amounts. Furthermore, only Pt(dach)(Cys)2 and free dach appeared to efflux from RBCs. Thus, RBCs do not appear to serve as a reservoir for cytotoxic Pt-dach complexes. Finally, the biotransformation products of oxaliplatin in the plasma were identified as Pt(dach)Cl2, Pt(dach)(Cys)2, Pt(dach)(GSH), Pt(dach)(Met), Pt(dach)(GSH)2, and free dach. Among these compounds, Pt(dach)Cl2 formed transiently, while Pt(dach)(Cys)2, Pt(dach)(Met), and free dach accumulated and were the major biotransformation products by 4 hours. Thus, this study has identified the major inert and reactive biotransformation products of oxaliplatin in both plasma and RBCs and thus provides the information required for detailed pharmacokinetic and biotransformation studies of oxaliplatin. [figure in text]

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antineoplastic Agents / blood*
  • Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacokinetics
  • Biotransformation
  • Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
  • Half-Life
  • Male
  • Organoplatinum Compounds / blood*
  • Organoplatinum Compounds / pharmacokinetics
  • Oxaliplatin
  • Rats
  • Rats, Wistar

Substances

  • Antineoplastic Agents
  • Organoplatinum Compounds
  • Oxaliplatin