Selection of the prescription dose for radiosurgery is the final step in treatment planning. Dose selection should take into account the expectation of treatment success (i.e., tumor control, arteriovenous malformation [AVM] obliteration, and so forth) and complication risks at various doses. Accurately predicting complication risks for individual patients is a complex process that is highly dependent on the radiosurgery treatment volume, the target location, and the nature of the target tissue. Dose-response data for desired outcomes of radiosurgery are sparse and difficult to interpret for most indications, with perhaps the exception of AVM obliteration. This article reviews the principles governing dose-selection and the evolving body of data guiding dose selection in radiosurgery.