Formulation, stability, and delivery of live attenuated vaccines for human use

Crit Rev Ther Drug Carrier Syst. 1999;16(1):1-83.


The successful use of live attenuated viral and bacterial vaccines depends not only on the proper choice and delivery of the microorganisms, but also on maintaining the sufficient potency required for an immune response. The inherent lability of live organisms presents a particular formulation challenge in terms of stabilizing and preserving vaccine viability during manufacturing, storage, and administration. This review examines pharmaceutical approaches to the stabilization, formulation, and lyophilization of biological macromolecules in general, as well as the specific applicability of these principles to live attenuated viral and bacterial vaccines. Several formulation development case studies with live vaccines are presented. In addition, comparative stability data are summarized for many other live viral and bacterial preparations. Various pharmaceutical issues with conventional and novel delivery systems for administration of parenteral and oral live vaccines are also discussed.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Bacterial Vaccines / administration & dosage*
  • Bacterial Vaccines / chemical synthesis*
  • Chemistry, Pharmaceutical
  • Drug Administration Routes
  • Drug Carriers
  • Drug Stability
  • Humans
  • Vaccines, Attenuated / administration & dosage
  • Vaccines, Attenuated / chemical synthesis
  • Viral Vaccines / administration & dosage*
  • Viral Vaccines / chemical synthesis*


  • Bacterial Vaccines
  • Drug Carriers
  • Vaccines, Attenuated
  • Viral Vaccines